What Is Biotechnology?
Biotechnology is a science-driven business sector that makes use of dwelling organisms and molecular biology to supply healthcare-related merchandise and therapeutics or to run processes. Biotechnology is finest identified for its more and more vital position within the fields of medication and prescription drugs and can also be utilized in different areas reminiscent of genomics, meal manufacturing, and the manufacturing of biofuels. For more than a decade, the biotechnology industry was dominated by DNA fingerprinting.
According to the United States National Scientific Council, “Biotechnology has controlled use of biological factors such as micro-organisms or cellular molecules for profitable purposes.”
It is also called DNA typing or genetics finger printing. It identifies a person on the basis of their DNA. In 1984, a scientist named Alec Jeffreys stated that 99.9 percent of the DNA is the same in all creatures and 0.1% of the fraction is different, but in twins born from a zygote, it is completely the same. DNA takes DNA from blood, red, hair, or any organism fluid for finger printing.
Genetic engineering was discovered in 1970 by Nathan and Smith. Genetic engineering is the process of artificially manipulating the genetic material of organisms to remove genes with defective genetic traits from DNA and replacing them with genes with superior traits. By this, the molecular nature of genes outside the human body can also be changed. This technique is also called recombination DNA technique. By using this, genetic scientists have been improving the genome structure of the organism to protect mankind from genetic diseases, as well as improving the breeds of plants and animals.
Biotechnology entails understanding how dwelling organisms operate on the molecular degree, so it combines various disciplines together with biology, physics, chemistry, arithmetic, science, and expertise. Biotechnology continues to make very vital contributions to extending the human lifespan and bettering the standard of life by quite a few methods, and offering merchandise and therapies to fight illnesses, producing increased crop yields, and utilizing biofuels to scale back greenhouse emissions too.
History of Biotechnology
The term ‘Biotechnology’ was first used by Hungarian scientist Karauli Ereky in 1919. Biotechnology in its primary kind has existed for hundreds of years, courting again to a period when people first discovered to supply bread, beer, and wine utilizing the pure means of fermentation. For hundreds of years, the rules of biotechnology had been restricted to agriculture, reminiscent of harvesting higher crops and bettering yields through the use of the very best seeds, and breeding livestock.
The sector of biotechnology started to develop quickly from the 19th century, with the invention of microorganisms, Gregor Mendel’s examination of genetics, and ground-breaking work on fermentation and microbial processes by giants within the area reminiscent of Pasteur and Lister. Early 20th-century biotechnology led to the key discovery by Alexander Fleming of penicillin, which went into large-scale manufacturing within the Nineteen Forties.
Biotechnology took off from the Nineteen Fifties, spurred by a greater understanding within the post-war interval of cell operation and molecular biology. Each decade since then produced the main breakthroughs in biotechnology. These embrace the invention of the 3D construction of DNA within the ’50s; insulin synthesis and the event of vaccines for measles, mumps, and rubella within the ’60s; large strides in DNA analysis within the ’70s; the event of the primary biotech-derived medication and vaccines to deal with illnesses reminiscent of most cancers and hepatitis B within the ’80s; the identification of quite a few genes and the introduction of recent remedies in a long time for managing a number of scleroses and cystic fibrosis within the ’90s; and the completion of the human genome sequence within the ’90s, which made it attainable for scientists worldwide to analysis new remedies for illnesses with genetic origins like most cancers, coronary heart illness, and Alzheimer’s.
The biotechnology sector has grown by leaps and bounds in the reason the Nineties. The business has spawned big firms within the medical house reminiscent of Gilead Sciences, Amgen, and Celgene. On the different excessive are hundreds of small, dynamic biotech firms, lots of that are engaged in varied elements of the medical business reminiscent of drug growth, genomics, or proteomics, whereas others are concerned in areas like bioremediation, biofuels, and meals merchandise.
There even have been huge product introductions in biopharma medication. Among the most often used biotechnology medical merchandise lately launched embrace the next:
- AbbVie’s Humira is used to deal with arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s illness, amongst different illnesses.
- Roche’s Rituxan is used to sluggish the expansion of tumors in a number of varieties of most cancers.
- Amgen/Pfizer’s Enbrel is used to deal with a number of autoimmune illnesses.
The highest U.S.-based biotechnology companies when it comes to market capitalization as of the top of 2018 had been Amgen Inc., Gilead Sciences, Celgene Corp., and Biogen Inc.
In recent times, biotechnology startups have sprouted alongside pc expertise firms in Silicon Valley with the rising area of bioinformatics. The purpose of most is to make use of biotechnology processes to create breakthrough medication.
Applications of Biotechnology:
Today there are very vast applications of biotechnology in various fields of life. Some of them are mentioned below:
In the health sector
In the health sector, biotechnology is used in the exchange of genes in medicine, in the production of various types of vaccines, in the knowledge of pre-pregnancy diseases, in the identification of genetic diseases, in the production of various antibiotics, in the production of hormones and antibodies, etc. .
In the industrial sector
In the industrial sector, biotechnology is used in the manufacture of enzymes and proteins, in the production of pesticides, in the production of substances related to artificial fuels, in the production of various types of weed pesticides for the agricultural sector, etc.
In the field of environment
Biotechnology has proved to be very useful for the environment sector by executing waste materials, production of energy in various forms from biomass, maintaining a very important role in maintaining the environmental balance.
In the agricultural sector
Biotechnology is used in agriculture and for the production of disease-free and resistant plants, the discovery of new bio-fertilizers, to increase the nutritional potential of plants, etc.