The smallest particles of a substance from which it is formed are called elements. All atoms of an element are equal. The element which tends to give up electrons and make cation is called metal. Such as sodium (Na), potassium (K), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), gold (Au), silver (Ag), copper (Cu), etc. Here I presenting the chemical properties of metals.
Chemical Properties of Metals
The major chemical properties of metals are as follows-
a) Interaction of Metals with Oxygen
Some metals are combusted in air and some react with oxygen at room temperature to form oxides.
Metal + Oxygen = Metal Oxide.
Aqueous solutions of this metal oxide are alkaline. That is why red turns litmus blue.
1. Alkali metals react with oxygen at normal temperature to form oxides.
4K + O2 → 2 K2O
2. Magnesium, does not react with oxygen at room temperature. But on heating, magnesium burns in the air giving intense heat and light to form a basic oxide called magnesium oxide
Mg + O2 → MgO
3. The iron piece does not burn in the air but its filth burns intensely.
4Fe+ 3O2 → 2Fe2O3
4. On combustion of copper, copper reacts with oxygen to form copper oxide.
2Cu + O2 → 2 CuO
b) Metals React with Water
Metals react with water at different temperatures according to their reactivity to form hydrogen gas and metal oxides or hydroxides.
1. In an alkali metal, such as sodium, potassium, reacting with cold water, the metal forms hydroxide and hydrogen gas. This action is so intense that the hydrogen gas produced by the thermal energy generated starts burning.
2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2
2. Metals like iron, zinc, aluminum, magnesium, etc. react with steam to form their oxides and hydrogen gases.
3Fe + 4H2O → Fe3O4 + 4H2
c) Reaction of Metals with Hydrogen
Some highly reactive metals such as sodium, potassium, etc. react with hydrogen to form their hydrides.
2K(s) + H2(g) → 2KH(s)
d) Reaction of Metals with Dilute Acids
Metals react with dilute acids to form hydrogen gas and metal salts. Metal + dilute acid = metal salts + hydrogen gas.
1. Metals react with dilute hydrochloric acid to form metal chloride and hydrogen gas.
Mg + HCl → MgCl2 + H2
2Al + 6HCl → 2AlCl3 + 3H2
2. Metals react with dilute sulfuric acid to form metal sulfate and hydrogen gas.
Fe + H2SO4 → FeSO4 + H2
3. By reacting with dilute nitric acid, metals form metal nitrates and hydrogen gases.
Mg + 2 HNO3 → Mg(NO3)2 + H2
e) Action with a Solution of Metal Salts
When a relatively more active metal is added to a solution of a less active metal, the more active metal will itself by displacing the less active metal from its solution of the less active metal. Takes place. For example, when a zinc rod is added to a copper sulfate solution, zinc replaces copper sulfate to form zinc sulfate, making the color of the solution light blue.
Zn + CuSO4 → ZnSO4 + Cu
Such copper replaces silver with silver nitrate and makes cupric nitrate.
Cu + 2AgNO3 → Cu(NO3)2 + 2Ag
f) Reaction of Metals with Halogens
Elements such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine belong to Group 17, the halogen group. Metals react with halogen to form an ionic metal halide. For example, sodium chloride reacts with it to form sodium chloride.
2Na(s) + Cl2(g) → 2NaCl(s)
2Mg + Br2→ 2MgBr
g)Metals Reaction with Nitrogen
The metal reacts with nitrogen to form nitride which is a more functional additive. Like, Ca reacts with nitrogen forming calcium nitride, Ca3N2and Mg reacts with nitrogen forming magnesium nitride, Mg3N2.
3Ca + N2 → Ca3N2
3Mg + N2 → Mg3 N2
h) Nature of Metal Carbonate
Metal Carbonates such as CaCO3, Na2CO3, etc are a type of base that produces salt, water, and carbon dioxide when they react with an acid Metal carbonates are insoluble in water and decompose on heating.
I think you have achieved perfect knowledge about the important chemical properties of metals.