Social Science

Nationalism In India

Nationalism is an ideology that binds the citizens of any country in the thread of unity. According to EH Carr, “Nationalism is the simple and natural sweetness of a specific shape and relationship between all its members.”

Nationalism In India

Indian nationalism is an example before the world, although it started from the Vedic period itself, the earth mother has been celebrated in the Earth Sukta of Atharvaveda. The Vishnu Purana describes India’s Yashogan as a paradise on earth, but it underwent special development during British rule. In fact, Indian nationalism is an example to the world in the form of linguistic, ethnic, religious, economic, geographical, etc. India. It is hardly possible in any country of the world, yet nationalism proved successful. The sense of unity among so many different leaders is nothing short of a miracle in itself. In the words of VA Smith “In fact, the unity of India is rooted in its diversity”. With the establishment of British society and in response to the chaos created in Indian society, the spirit of nationalism in India grew stronger.

Before the arrival of the British, India was divided into small independent princely states. The rules and customs of each princely state were different from religious traditions. During the British period, a general system was established in the political and administrative terms of the whole country, and a state of the law was established. These laws were equally applicable to all the citizens of the state and in order to enforce them, the lower courts of the whole country were referred to the High Courts. , Federal Court and Council were established. British law was based on acts and democratic values, in which every citizen of society had equal rights. Thus, for the first time in India, legal and administrative unity was established on the basis of democracy.

Due to the rise of nationalism in India:

1) Effects of social and religious movements:

In the 19th century, social and religious movements have contributed immensely to awakening the national spirit in India. Raja Rammohan Roy through Brahma Samaj, Swami Dayanand Saraswati through Arya Samaj, Swami Vivekananda through Ramakrishna Mission, And the religious and social reform movement that Mrs. Annie Besant undertook through the Theosophical Society, removed a variety of religious and social narrowings and created a sense of equality among Indians. Swami Dayanand Saraswati was the first to say that “India is for Indians.”

2) The evils of colonial governance:

The British had destroyed Indian rural industries to serve their interests and started exploiting agriculture. As a result of this, the feeling of nationalism was generated due to the resentment of the colonial administration in the villagers. Apart from this, the British had developed the infrastructure of railways, postal wires, etc. to fulfill their economic interests, so that the Indians could get in touch with each other. Gaya, which gave a boost to nationalism.

3) Historical Research:

Many Western scholars such as William Jones Max Muller etc. translated ancient Indian literature into the English language after studying ancient Indian artifacts that ancient Indian Sanskrit was the best culture in the world, due to this, a sense of self-pride in the mind of Indians instead of self-inferiority in the mind Woke up Apart from this, Raja Rammohan Roy Swami Dayanand, Saraswati, and Swami Vivekananda also made Indians aware of their glorious past. This aroused a sense of nationalism in the minds of Indians.
4) Western education and thinking:
Western education and thinking In India
On the suggestion of Lord Macaulay that English was the medium of English education in India, Rajni Pam Dutt wrote that “The purpose of Western education in British India is to create a class which is Indian by blood and varna but who is British by the mind. Western education benefited India more than harm because it awakened national consciousness in India because of the knowledge of the English language, when Indian scholars studied the works of Western philosophers like Stuart Mill, Herbert Spencer, Milton, etc. a sense of freedom was awakened in them. Because his compositions resulted in revolutions in many countries of the world. It is also to be noted here that Raja Rammohun Roy, Firozeshah Mehta, Gopal Krishna Gokhale, Dadabhai Naroji, etc. are the only product of English education today.

5) Role of press and newspapers:

Role of press and newspapers In India

In spreading the nationalist ideology in India, the press and newspapers played a very important role in the newspapers published in various languages, the news of the tyranny of the British rule and the demand for political rights was published, reading this, the sense of nationalism was strengthened in the minds of educated Indians. . Munro has written that “Both an independent press and foreign rajas cannot run simultaneously”¬†they are against each other.” Samvad Kaumudi, Amrit Bazar Patrika, Indian Mirror, Hindu, Som Prakash, Comrades, etc. were the leading newspapers of the time. Apart from this, the works of Indian litterateurs like Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Rabindranath Tagore, Dada Bhai Naoroji, Keshav Chandra Sen, RC Dutt, etc. also generated a sense of nationalism among Indians.

6) Influence of contemporary European movements:

The influence of freedom movements in contemporary European American African countries also proved to be important nationalism in India. The French Revolution of 1830 and 1848 brought a sense of sacrifice among Indians. And the independence of Greece generated extraordinary enthusiasm among Indians. The influence of Surendranath Banerjee, Lala Lajpat Rai, etc. lectures on the contribution of Megini and Garibaldi also proved helpful in the origin of Indian nationalism. Like South Africa, Vietnam, and other colonies, the rise of modern nationalism in India was closely associated with anti-colonial movements. The combined sense of oppression and suppression of colonial rule had closely connected the various groups of the country. Under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, Congress mobilized these groups and created a big movement.

7) Immediate cause:

During colonial rule, many activities of the anti-British government like the Ilbert Bill controversy, Vernacular Press Act, Rowlatt Act, Reducing the age of civil service, Delhi Durbar, etc. also played an important role in awakening the spirit of nationalism among Indians. In other words, the British colonial policies and the conflict of interest of India heralded a new era in India which could lead to the dream of independent India.

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