In 1909, Gandhiji had said in his newspaper “Hind Swaraj” that the British government’s dream came true only with the help of Indians. It is going on with the same spirit even if we stop cooperating with the government then throughout the year In the same period its structure will collapse and Swaraj will be established in India. For this purpose, the Non-Cooperation Movement was formally started on 1 August 1920 as Bal Gangadhar Tilak died on this day. At a special session of the Calcutta Congress of 4 September 1920, the resolution of the non-cooperation movement was passed. It was the first nationwide mass movement organized under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi in which Mahatma Gandhi also included the Khilafat Movement to gain the support of the Muslim community. The main objective of the movement was to boycott all the economic, social, and political institutions of the British Government in India. Gandhiji said that if non-cooperation (which was completely non-violent) was followed properly, within a year, India would achieve Swaraj. Holi of foreign cloth was lit in it, Gandhiji returned his medal of “Kesar-e-Hind”, Seth Jamuna Lal Bajaj returned his “Raibahadur” degree, millions of students left to go to government schools and universities Granted, the lawyers stopped working in the courts, the working class went on strike. According to government figures, in the year 1921, there were 396 strike days involving about 6 lakh workers. The hill tribes refused to obey the forest laws, the peasants of Awadh refused to pay taxes and the peasants of Kumaon refused to carry the goods of the colonial authorities.
It seemed as if the British government had been shaken to perfection by these events, now the attainment of Swarajya would be achieved soon, but at the same time on 4 February 1922, a procession of agitators at a place called Chauri Chaura in Gorakhpur district of United Provinces (present Uttar Pradesh). But the police opened fire, which caused the mob to set fire to the police station, in which 22 policemen died because the movement was to be completely non-violent. Therefore, on receiving the news of its violence, Mahatma Gandhi, sadly, called a meeting of the Congress Working Committee in Bardoli on 12 February in which a resolution to suspend the mass satyagraha and non-cooperation movement was passed due to the Chauri Chaura incident.
Although this movement did not succeed in achieving its objectives, it aroused a sense of nationalism among the people and aroused a sense of sacrifice for the independence of the country.
Effect of the non-cooperation movement in different parts of the country:
All groups, classes, and communities involved in the Non-Cooperation Movement called for Swaraj but they differed from Swaraj.
Effect of movement in cities:
The non-cooperation movement started with the participation of the urban middle class. Students and teachers left school colleges, lawyers quit litigation, people in most of the provinces of Madras boycotted the council elections, foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops were picketed and foreign clothes started to be burnt. Between 1921 and 1922, the import of foreign cloth halved. But the movement gradually weakened due to a lack of options for a long time. The handloom clothes were far out of reach of the poor due to the cost of machine-made clothes, so gradually people started adopting foreign cloth.
Effect of movement in rural areas:
As the struggles of farmers and tribals were going on in different parts of the country after the First World War, the agitators also joined the Non-Cooperation Movement on Gandhiji’s call. Sanyasi Baba Ramchandra was leading the peasants in Awadh In June 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru also visited the village of Illegal and formed Awadh Kisan Sabha with Baba Ramchandra. In a month, more than 300 branches of the organization had been formed in the village of this entire area. When the Non-Cooperation Movement started the next year, Congress tried to include the peasant struggle of Awadh in this movement, but the farmers’ movements should develop in such a manner. The Congress leadership was not happy because when the movement spread in 1921, the houses of talukdars and traders were attacked and some people who occupied the grain godowns spread such a rumor that Gandhiji has said that no rent will be filled now. And the land will be distributed among the poor. People were justifying all their actions and aspirations by taking the name of Mahatma Gandhi.
Effect of movement in tribal areas:
Gandhiji’s Swaraj and Swadeshi slogans were interpreted differently in tribal areas. For example, in the 1920s in the Guden hills of Andhra Pradesh, a fierce guerrilla movement started in the 1920s led by Alluri Sitaram Raju, who was considered an incarnation of God, because here the British government prohibited the local tribals from using the forests. At the same time, she wanted to beggar for the construction of the road, because Alluri Sitaram Raju used to sing the qualities of Gandhi continuously, so people thought that she was inspired by Gandhi’s non-cooperation movement. Gudem rebels attacked police stations and tried to kill British officers. In 1924 Raju was arrested and hanged.
Effect of movement in gardens:
The workers of the tea gardens of Assam who were locked inside a boundary thought that freedom meant that they could go through this boundary so that they would be able to make contact with their village, tea under the Inland Immigration Act of 1859. The workers of the plantations were not allowed to go out of the plantation without permission. When they heard about the non-cooperation movement, thousands of workers left the plantation and left the house. They thought that Gandhi was ruling now, so everyone would get land in the village, but they were caught and beaten badly by the police on the way.