The energy that can be obtained through repeated use is called renewable energy. Renewable energy often referred to as clean energy, comes from natural sources or processes that are constantly available. It is such energy that depends on natural sources. It includes solar energy, geothermal energy, wind, tidal, water, and various types of biomass.
Types of Renewable Energy Resources
Solar energy is a better alternative to safe and environmentally friendly energy. Today, solar energy is proving to be lifesaving as an alternative to renewable energy resources at a time when fears of the scarcity of fossil fuels and high prices are indicating a catastrophic energy crisis. Solar energy is used in many ways. Through this, grains can be used for drying, water heating, cooking, refrigeration, water refining, and electric power generation. Lights can be obtained by converting solar light into electricity through a photovoltaic system.
Converting sun energy into electrical energy is mainly known as solar energy. The energy of the sun can be converted into electrical energy in two ways. The first with the help of a light-electric cell and the second after heating the fluid from the heat of the sun by running an electric generator from it.
The entire Indian territory receives about 5000 lakh crore kilowatt-hour per square meter of solar energy, which is many times more than the total power consumption of the world. On a sunny day, the average daily solar energy is 4 to 7-kilowatt hours per square meter.
Various programs for the expansion of solar energy are conducted by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India.
Wind energy is also a renewable energy resource. According to the direction and speed of the wind, power is generated by running the windmill in the same way as running a turbine by water. Winds are carried throughout the year in seaside areas. India is a country with a vast seaside area, so there is immense potential for wind energy production. The largest box of wind power farms in India is located from Nagercoil to Madurai in Tamil Nadu. In addition, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Gujarat, Kerala, Maharashtra, Orissa, and Lakshadweep also have wind power farms. The possibility of large quantities of winds available for offshore wind energy has been known on the southern end of the Indian peninsula and on the west coast. The installed capacity of wind energy in India ranks fifth in the world. India is also producing 10 percent of its energy with the help of wind and solar energy. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) has announced medium and long-term targets under the offshore wind power project in India. A mid-term target of 5 GW by 2022 and a long-term target of 30 GW by 2030 have been announced.
Main Wind Power Plants in India
|Muppandal wind farm||Kanyakumari||Tamil Nadu||1500|
|Jaisalmer Wind Park||Jaisalmer||Rajasthan||1064|
|Brahmanvel wind farm||Dhule||Maharashtra||528|
|Dhalgaon wind farm||Sangli||Maharashtra||278|
|Vankusawade Wind Park||Satara District||Maharashtra||259|
|Mamatkheda Wind Park||Mamatkheda||Madhya Pradesh||100.5|
|Anantapur Wind Park||Nimbagallu||Andhra Pradesh||100|
|Damanjodi Wind Power Plant||Damanjodi||Odisha||99|
|Acciona Tuppadahalli||Chitradurga District||Karnataka||56.1|
|Dangiri Wind Farm||Jaisalmer||Rajasthan||54|
|Bercha Wind Park||Ratlam||Madhya Pradesh||50|
We all know that the decomposition of organic matter produces flammable gas whose capacity exceeds all this capacity in kerosene, wood, and charcoal. Using this same quality, biogas is produced for domestic consumption through a specific type of biogas plant in agriculture, livestock, and man-made waste materials in rural areas. The cattle dung plants are known as dung gas plants in rural India. This not only provides biogas but also provides high-quality fertilizer from cattle dung. A biogas plant is a better energy option in terms of environmental protection as it prevents the loss of trees from burning wood as well as pollution from waste materials.
The seawater rises and falls twice daily due to the gravitational force of the moon and the earth. The rising of the water is called ‘tides’ and the action of falling down is called ‘bhata’. When tidal water power of the ocean is used to generate electricity through a turbine, this energy is called tidal energy. For this, tidal water is prevented by making a dam across the seaside narrow bay. After the tide comes down, the water of the dam is dropped by a pipe on the turbine towards the sea, which produces electricity. In India, ideal conditions to generate energy by tidal waves are present in the Gulf of Khambhat, Gulf of Kutch, and Gujarat on the coast, the Sundarbans region of West Bengal, the delta of the Ganges. Similarly, ocean waves can also be used to produce electricity.
Geothermal energy is the renewable energy generated from the thermal heat of a geostation. Hot sources and hot water fountains are found in volcanic regions. The hot steam coming out with them is used to run turbines and generate electricity at some places. It is called geothermal energy. Several countries based on geothermal energy have been built in countries like the USA, Italy Land, etc.
Two pilot projects in India for harnessing geothermal energy, one has been started in Parvati Valley near Manikarna in Himachal Pradesh and the other in Puga Valley in Ladakh.